Pathology of the Olfactory Nerve

  • Nasreddin Abolmaali
    Affiliations
    Radiation Research in Oncology, Technical University of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
  • Volker Gudziol
    Affiliations
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Technical University of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
  • Thomas Hummel
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Technical University of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
    Affiliations
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Technical University of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
      The olfactory system and especially the olfactory bulb (OB) as the first relay in the olfactory system represent highly plastic structures. For example, OB volume partly reflects the degree of afferent neural activity. Research indicates that smell deficits leading to a reduced sensory input result in structural changes at the level of the OB. Reduced OB volumes also may be considered characteristic of parosmia. Apart from discussing the clinical implications of these findings, the radiologic basics for assessment of olfactory-eloquent structures are addressed in detail.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      Purchase one-time access
      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.
      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.
      Subscribe to Neuroimaging Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Abolmaali N.D.
        • Hietschold V.
        • Vogl T.J.
        • et al.
        MR evaluation in patients with isolated anosmia since birth or early childhood.
        AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002; 23: 157-164
        • Yousem D.M.
        • Geckle R.J.
        • Bilker W.B.
        • et al.
        Olfactory bulb and tract and temporal lobe volumes. Normative data across decades.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998; 855: 546-555
        • Leopold D.A.
        • Bartels S.
        Evaluation of olfaction.
        J Otolaryngol. 2002; 31: S18-S23
        • Knecht M.
        • Hummel T.
        Recording of the human electro-olfactogram.
        Physiol Behav. 2004; 83: 13-19
        • Jafek B.W.
        • Murrow B.
        • Michaels R.
        • et al.
        Biopsies of human olfactory epithelium.
        Chem Senses. 2002; 27: 623-628
        • Abolmaali N.
        • Kantchew A.
        • Hummel T.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the “nasal cycle” using MR-imaging.
        Eur Radiol. 2003; 13: C2
        • Mueller C.
        • Temmel A.F.P.
        • Toth J.
        • et al.
        Computed tomography scans in the evaluation of patients with olfactory dysfunction.
        Am J Rhinol. 2006; 20: 109-112
        • Suzuki M.
        • Takashima T.
        • Kadoya M.
        • et al.
        MR imaging of olfactory bulbs and tracts.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 1989; 10: 955-957
        • Yousem D.M.
        • Turner W.J.D.
        • Li C.
        • et al.
        Kallmann Syndrome: MR evaluation of olfactory system.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 1993; 14: 839-843
        • Casselman J.W.
        • Kuhweide R.
        • Deimling M.
        • et al.
        Constructive interference in steady state-3DFT MR imaging of the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 1993; 14: 47-57
        • Jafek B.W.
        • Murrow B.
        • Linschoten M.
        Evaluation and treatment of anosmia.
        Curr Opin Otol Head Neck Surg. 2000; 8: 63-67
        • Kern R.C.
        Chronic sinusitis and anosmia: pathologic changes in the olfactory mucosa.
        Laryngoscope. 2000; 110: 1071-1077
        • Seiden A.M.
        Olfactory loss secondary to nasal and sinus pathology.
        in: Seiden A.M. Taste and smell disorders. Thieme, New York1997: 52-71
        • Seiden A.M.
        • Duncan H.J.
        The diagnosis of a conductive olfactory loss.
        Laryngoscope. 2001; 111: 9-14
        • Trotier D.
        • Bensimon J.L.
        • Herman P.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory obstruction of the olfactory clefts and olfactory loss in humans: a new syndrome?.
        Chem Senses. 2007; 32: 285-292
        • Aiba T.
        • Inoue Y.
        • Matsumoto K.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of congenital anosmia.
        Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2004; 554: 50-54
        • De Bellis A.
        • Sinisi A.A.
        • Conte M.
        • et al.
        Antipituitary antibodies against gonadotropin-secreting cells in adult male patients with apparently idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92: 604-607
        • Gasztonyi Z.
        • Barsi P.
        • Czeizel A.E.
        Kallmann syndrome in three unrelated women and an association with femur-fibula-ulna dysostosis in one case.
        Am J Med Genet. 2000; 93: 176-180
        • Ghadami M.
        • Majidzadeh A.K.
        • Morovvati S.
        • et al.
        Isolated congenital anosmia with morphologically normal olfactory bulb in two Iranian families: a new clinical entity?.
        Am J Med Genet A. 2004; 127: 307-309
        • Ho T.P.
        • Carrie S.
        Congenital anosmia.
        Int J Clin Pract. 2001; 55: 418-419
        • Ishman S.L.
        • Loehrl T.A.
        • Smith M.M.
        Calcification of the olfactory bulbs in three patients with hyposmia.
        AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003; 24: 2097-2101
        • Madan R.
        • Sawlani V.
        • Gupta S.
        • et al.
        MRI findings in Kallmann syndrome.
        Neurol India. 2004; 52: 501-503
        • Massin N.
        • Pecheux C.
        • Eloit C.
        • et al.
        X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome: clinical heterogeneity in three siblings carrying an intragenic deletion of the KAL-1 gene.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 2003-2008
        • Vagenakis G.A.
        • Hyphantis T.N.
        • Papageorgiou C.
        • et al.
        Kallmann's syndrome and schizophrenia.
        Int J Psychiatry Med. 2004; 34: 379-390
        • Yousem D.M.
        • Geckle R.J.
        • Bilker W.
        • et al.
        MR evaluation of patients with congenital hyposmia or anosmia.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996; 166: 439-443
        • Azoulay R.
        • Fallet-Bianco C.
        • Garel C.
        • et al.
        MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses.
        Pediatr Radiol. 2006; 36: 97-107
        • Chalouhi C.
        • Faulcon P.
        • Le Bihan C.
        • et al.
        Olfactory evaluation in children: application to the CHARGE syndrome.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: E81-E88
        • Pinto G.
        • Abadie V.
        • Mesnage R.
        • et al.
        CHARGE syndrome includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and abnormal olfactory bulb development.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 5621-5626
        • Obeid F.
        • Al-Mefty O.
        Recurrence of olfactory groove meningiomas.
        Neurosurgery. 2003; 53 ([discussion: 42–3]): 534-542
        • Welge-Luessen A.
        • Temmel A.
        • Quint C.
        • et al.
        Olfactory function in patients with olfactory groove meningioma.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001; 70: 218-221
        • Yasuda M.
        • Higuchi O.
        • Takano S.
        • et al.
        Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor: a case report.
        J Neurooncol. 2006; 76: 111-113
        • Yousem D.M.
        • Geckle R.J.
        • Bilker W.
        • et al.
        Olfactory bulb and tract and temporal lobe volumes.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998; 855: 546-555
        • Yousem D.M.
        • Oguz K.K.
        • Li C.
        Imaging of the olfactory system.
        Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2001; 22: 456-472
        • Yousem D.M.
        • Geckle R.J.
        • Doty R.L.
        • et al.
        Reproducibility and reliability of volumetric measurements of olfactory eloquent structures.
        Acad Radiol. 1997; 4: 264-269
        • Baker H.
        • Kawano T.
        • Albert V.
        • et al.
        Olfactory bulb dopamine neurons survive deafferentation-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase.
        Neuroscience. 1984; 11: 605-615
        • Margolis F.L.
        • Roberts N.
        • Ferriero D.
        • et al.
        Denervation in the primary olfactory pathway of mice: biochemical and morphological effects.
        Brain Res. 1974; 81: 469-483
        • Cummings D.M.
        • Knab B.R.
        • Brunjes P.C.
        Effects of unilateral olfactory deprivation in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica.
        J Neurobiol. 1997; 33: 429-438
        • Korol D.L.
        • Brunjes P.C.
        Unilateral naris closure and vascular development in the rat olfactory bulb.
        Neuroscience. 1992; 46: 631-641
        • Curtis M.A.
        • Kam M.
        • Nannmark U.
        • et al.
        Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension.
        Science. 2007; 315: 1243-1249
        • Lledo P.M.
        • Gheusi G.
        Olfactory processing in a changing brain.
        Neuroreport. 2003; 14: 1655-1663
        • Lledo P.M.
        • Gheusi G.
        • Vincent J.D.
        Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system.
        Physiol Rev. 2005; 85: 281-317
        • Lledo P.M.
        • Saghatelyan A.
        • Lemasson M.
        Inhibitory interneurons in the olfactory bulb: from development to function.
        Neuroscientist. 2004; 10: 292-303
        • Fletcher M.L.
        • Wilson D.A.
        Olfactory bulb mitral-tufted cell plasticity: odorant-specific tuning reflects previous odorant exposure.
        J Neurosci. 2003; 23: 6946-6955
        • Najbauer J.
        • Leon M.
        Olfactory experience modulated apoptosis in the developing olfactory bulb.
        Brain Res. 1995; 674: 245-251
        • Mueller A.
        • Rodewald A.
        • Reden J.
        • et al.
        Reduced olfactory bulb volume in post-traumatic and post-infectious olfactory dysfunction.
        Neuroreport. 2005; 16: 475-478
        • Rombaux P.
        • Mouraux A.
        • Bertrand B.
        • et al.
        Olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss.
        Laryngoscope. 2006; 116: 436-439
        • Rombaux P.
        • Mouraux A.
        • Bertrand B.
        • et al.
        Retronasal and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with posttraumatic loss of smell.
        Laryngoscope. 2006; 116: 901-905
        • Rombaux P.
        • Weitz H.
        • Mouraux A.
        • et al.
        Olfactory function assessed with orthonasal and retronasal testing, olfactory bulb volume, and chemosensory event-related potentials.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006; 132: 1346-1351
        • Frasnelli J.
        • Landis B.N.
        • Heilmann S.
        • et al.
        Clinical presentation of qualitative olfactory dysfunction.
        Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003; 11: 11-13
        • Leopold D.
        Distortion of olfactory perception: diagnosis and treatment.
        Chem Senses. 2002; 27: 611-615
        • Mori K.
        • Nagao H.
        • Yoshihara Y.
        The olfactory bulb: coding and processing of odor molecule information.
        Science. 1999; 286: 711-715
        • Doty R.L.
        • Deems D.
        • Steller S.
        Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: a general deficit unrelated to neurologic signs, disease stage, or disease duration.
        Neurology. 1988; 38: 1237-1244
        • Haehner A.
        • Hummel T.
        • Hummel C.
        • et al.
        Olfactory loss may be a first sign of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
        Mov Disord. 2007; 22: 839-842
        • Ponsen M.M.
        • Stoffers D.
        • Booij J.
        • et al.
        Idiopathic hyposmia as a preclinical sign of Parkinson's disease.
        Ann Neurol. 2004; 56: 173-181
        • Mueller A.
        • Abolmaali N.D.
        • Hakimi A.R.
        • et al.
        Olfactory bulb volumes in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease–a pilot study.
        J Neural Transm. 2005; 112: 1363-1370
        • Huisman E.
        • Uylings H.B.
        • Hoogland P.V.
        A 100% increase of dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb may explain hyposmia in Parkinson's disease.
        Mov Disord. 2004; 19: 687-692
        • Witt M.
        • Gudziol V.
        • Haehner A.
        • et al.
        Nasal mucosa in patients with Parkinson's disease.
        Chem Senses. 2006; 31: A31
        • Gottfried J.A.
        Smell: central nervous processing.
        Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2006; 63: 44-69
        • Furukawa M.
        • Kamide M.
        • Miwa T.
        • et al.
        Importance of unilateral examination in olfactometry.
        Auris Nasus Larynx (Tokyo). 1988; 15: 113-116
        • Shelley W.B.
        • Shelley E.D.
        The smell of burnt toast: a case report.
        Cutis. 2000; 65: 225-226
        • Reiter E.R.
        • DiNardo L.J.
        • Costanzo R.M.
        Effects of head injury on olfaction and taste.
        Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2004; 37: 1167-1184
        • Mann N.M.
        • Vento J.A.
        A study comparing SPECT and MRI in patients with anosmia after traumatic brain injury.
        Clin Nucl Med. 2006; 31: 458-462
        • Chen C.
        • Shih Y.H.
        • Yen D.J.
        • et al.
        Olfactory auras in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
        Epilepsia. 2003; 44: 257-260
        • Daniels C.
        • Gottwald B.
        • Pause B.M.
        • et al.
        Olfactory event-related potentials in patients with brain tumors.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2001; 112: 1523-1530
        • Doty R.L.
        • Bromley S.M.
        • Moberg P.J.
        • et al.
        Laterality in human nasal chemoreception.
        in: Christman S. Cerebral asymmetries in sensory and perceptual processing. North Holland Publishing, Amsterdam1997: 497-542
        • Jones-Gotman M.
        • Zatorre R.J.
        Odor recognition memory in humans: role of right temporal and orbitofrontal regions.
        Brain Cogn. 1993; 22: 182-198
        • Jones-Gotman M.
        • Zatorre R.J.
        • Cendes F.
        • et al.
        Contribution of medial versus lateral temporal-lobe structures to human odour identification.
        Brain. 1997; 120: 1845-1856
        • Jones-Gotman M.
        • Zatorre R.J.
        • Olivier A.
        • et al.
        Learning and retention of words and designs following excision from medial or lateral temporal-lobe structures.
        Neuropsychologia. 1997; 35: 963-973
        • Zatorre R.J.
        • Jones-Gotman M.
        • Evans A.C.
        • et al.
        Functional localization and lateralization of human olfactory cortex.
        Nature. 1992; 360: 339-340